HAVE you noticed the marvelous sense of timing of living things? Each year plants germinate, grow and flower according to schedule. Not all are on the same schedule some flower in the spring, others in the summer and still others in autumn and early winter. But each species knows the right time to carry out its various activities.

It is similar with animals. They breed, reproduce, become dormant, migrate and perform other functions as if they were following a precise timetable. Consider the insects that spend winter in a dormant state called diapause. Toward the end of summer, while the weather is still warm, they interrupt their busy feeding and reproduction activities and begin to settle into their dormant state. How do they know that winter is near?

Also, there are the birds that migrate to the tropics to spend the winter. With the coming of spring in the north, they head for home. Since the temperature in the tropics is about the same as when the birds arrived, how do they know that it is warming up back home? Many people have asked questions like these. Have you?

The Wondrous Timing Device

It is believed that the main timing device of living things is light. It used to be commonly thought that the changing temperatures of the season triggered the various responses in plants and animals. But temperature is variable; it is inconsistent from year to year. Light, on the other hand, is reliable. On any given day of the year the length of daylight will be the same. It never varies. Thus a living organism is provided with exact information on the advance of the seasons.

This is not to say that temperature or other factors may not also affect the seasonal rhythm of plants and animals. They apparently do. But the main timing device seems to be the length of daylight. That the activities of living things are scheduled by means of this wondrous clock is a relatively recent discovery.

An Important Investigation

In 1920 investigators were studying a certain variety of tobacco called Maryland Mammoth. They were trying to determine why it was late in flowering when grown near Washington, D.C. Although the plant was ready to flower for days, something prevented it from doing so until too late in the season for its seeds to mature.

Many experiments were conducted, but they failed to reveal the reason for the delayed flowering. Finally plants kept in a greenhouse were artificially given a shortened daily exposure of light. This did it! The plants bloomed earlier than those that were grown outside. This gave the clue as to why the Maryland Mammoth will not bloom until late in the season near Washington, D.C. It is because not until late summer has the daylight decreased to the proper length for this plant to flower!

Does light similarly affect the functions of other plants? Further research by these investigators showed that it does. It was discovered that plants can be divided into three groups, depending on their reaction to length of daylight.

First, there is the group that includes plants, such as tomatoes and cucumbers, that are not choosy as to the length of day. A second group are called “short-day” plants. These will not flower until the daily dose of light is below a certain number of hours. The third group are called “long-day” plants. These flower when daylight extends beyond a certain number of hours.

Consequence of Findings

These investigations answered many questions. They explain why plants of a given species can be planted at different times of the year, and yet all flower at the same time. And they reveal why certain plants bloom in particular districts, but will not flower at all in others.

Agriculturists now routinely determine the light requirements of plants. Some of them have very specific length-of-daylight needs. For example, various varieties of onions and soybeans do best only when grown within a belt of latitude of 150 miles. If they are grown either north or south of this region they may fail as a crop.

The daylight needs of plants can result in disappointment to flower lovers. While on a trip a person may obtain a colorful plant for his garden, but back home it may not bloom. Why? The daylight where he lives may not be of suitable length for the plant to flower.

For example, there is the rock-garden plant Sedum telephium, which grows in southern Vermont. But it needs a daily dose of sixteen hours or more of light in order to bloom. It receives this in Vermont. However, if one took it very far south it would fail to bloom because of insufficient daylight.

On the other hand, a person in northern Maine may be grateful that there is little or no ragweed there. Ragweed will not flower until daylight decreases to fourteen and a half hours. This does not occur in northern Maine until after August 1, so it does not allow enough time for seeds to mature before cold weather comes.

How Plants Detect Light

Learning these facts about the responses of plants to length of daylight made something else apparent. Plants must have something within them that detects the change in length of daylight and that causes them to respond accordingly. Just recently this substance, called “phytochrome,” has been isolated.

Phytochrome is a bluish, light-sensitive pigment that absorbs red light. It has been shown that many plants, when exposed to the red wavelength of light, mature more rapidly. Somehow the light acts on the phytochrome to regulate a plant’s growth changes, from seed stage to maturity. But it is not understood just how this is accomplished.

Manipulating the Light

Many gardeners now use to good advantage this knowledge about the responses of plants to light. By adjusting the length of exposure to light they can make a plant bloom when they want it to. Thus in winter they enjoy flowers that normally grow only in summer, and those that normally bloom in autumn they may have in other seasons.

A chrysanthemum, for instance, is normally an autumn-flowering plant. But it can be made to bloom in summer. Just cover it with a cardboard carton in the late afternoons, and remove the carton in the morning. The extended period of darkness will cause the chrysanthemums to react as if it were autumn, and they will bloom with the summer flowers.

On the other hand, a person may want to enjoy in winter flowers that normally bloom only in summer. By giving them daily doses of artificial light after the day has ended, these plants can be made to react as if the long summer days had arrived. Thus they will bloom during the short days of winter.

Effect upon Animals

After discovering the remarkable effects of the length of daylight upon plants, research was done to ascertain whether animals were similarly affected. As a result, many animals, too, were found to time their seasonal routines by the length of daylight.

The first bird experiments were conducted on starlings. Normally starlings mate in spring, when the days grow longer. However, the short days of December were lengthened artificially by turning lights on the birds after the sun went down. In a few days the starlings began to molt and take on the colorful plumage of their springtime mating season. Their breeding schedule was advanced four months by increasing the length of their daily exposure to light!

Similar experiments were conducted on ferrets, which also normally breed in spring or early summer. These small animals, too, mated in winter when they were exposed to extra periods of light. Both starlings and ferrets are long-day creatures. They are among those creatures that respond sexually to long periods of light.

However, many other animals, such as goats, sheep and deer, breed in the autumn. The shorter length of daylight affects them sexually. Thus sheep breeders, who want early spring lambs, limit their animals’ exposure to daylight late in the summer. By bringing the sheep into dark sheds toward the end of day in July and August, the reproduction process is started earlier.

Many interesting experiments have also been conducted on insects, including the silkworm. The eggs, laid in the fall, pass the winter in a dormant state. They hatch into larvae, or worms, in spring. The larvae soon change into pupae, and then into adult moths. But eggs laid in early summer do not pass through a period of dormancy.

Experiments reveal that it is the length of daylight that determines why eggs laid in early summer do not go into a state of dormancy while those laid in the fall do. By artificial regulation of the light, silkworm moths can be made to reproduce generation after generation without any of their eggs entering a stage of dormancy. But when the length of light exposure is changed, moths lay eggs that become dormant.

As with plants, there obviously is some mechanism within animals that triggers their various responses to length of light. It is believed that a hormone is involved. But few details are known as to how the light-length messages are received or transmitted.

Although man has learned much about the many marvels of creation, he is continually reminded of how much remains a mystery to him. The study of light’s effects on living things again illustrates this.

By: Lenith Hinaloc

About the Author:

Did you find this article useful? For more useful tips, hints, points to ponder and keep in mind, do please browse for more information at our websites. http://www.youkome.com and http://www.phil-islands.com

The US currently has about 700 megawatts of installed solar panel electricity generation connected to the grid, according to research by the consulting firm, Navigant. This represents less than 1% of all the electricity generated in the US.

Each state controls the speed of solar adoption by heir independent policies. If these policies remain nchanged, generation from solar panels in the US, both commercial and residential generators are expected to grow to 6,000 megawatts by the year 2015.

Three thousand of the 6,000 megawatts will be generated in California. The incentive programs of California are the gold standard among supporters of solar power. Growth in the home solar-power market will not take off until more states adopt favorable net metering rules. The relaxed solar implementation can offset the cost of installing renewable power system and capture electricity that is being loss from the potential solar generation. The Navigant report estimates that an additional 3,000 megawatts of solar panel electricity could be available in the next eight years if the states with solar implementation limitations lifted their caps.

There are eight states that have no net-metering rules. These states are South Dakota, Kansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Florida, Arizona and my own state, South Carolina. A list compiled by New Energy Source lists California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland receiving the highest scores for solar adaptation with the remaining states of lower scores because of restrictive laws.

As of September 2007, 39 states had adopted some measures of rules to compensate consumers for sending self-generated renewable power to the grid. There is a lot behind the scenes that the states and power generation companies are willing to wage a serious fight to preclude Federal mandates to push solar renewable energy.

In my state of South Carolina, the Santee Electrical Cooperative, which is owned by the state of South Carolina, is proposing a $998 million dollar coal burning generators. The site has been put on hold by the federal government for a deeper study of the environmental impact. Meanwhile, Santee continues the fight with their commissioned study. Their study concludes “$900 million in economic output, $500 million in earnings and 9,300 jobs for South Carolinians” Unfortunately; Santee made no attempt to study the environmental impact or what a combination of renewable/nonrenewable future actions would mean to the state.

The federal renewable fuels bill has been stopped in the US Senate. Southern Co., American Electric Power Co. and other coal fired producers hired top Washington lobbyists, including Rudy Giuliani’s firm, to help defeat a measure that would force them to boost electricity generated by wind, solar and other forms of renewable energy to 15 percent of the U.S. total by 2020. That’s up from less than 2 percent today, and is a move the industry says would cost at least $67 billion. Southern Co. has spent $7.26 million this year lobbying Congress, more than Exxon Mobil Corp. or General Motors Corp., according to the Washington-based Center for Responsive Politics. It hired such firms as Bracewell & Giuliani LLP, where Republican presidential front-runner Giuliani is a partner. The bill would require utilities to obtain 2.75 percent of their power from renewable sources starting in 2010, ramping that up to 15 percent by 2020. Almost one-quarter of the mandate could be met by improving efficiency. Companies that fail to meet the standard would have to pay a penalty to the federal government. The cooperative of Southern Co and other generating companies consider this too high of a barrier and appear to have succeeded to remove the renewable fuel section from the bill going to President Bush.

The average homeowner does not have a vote in adopting renewable fuels electrical generation standards. The battle is being conducted by the state and federal government and powerful electrical generating companies. The problem is that the average homeowner will be the big loser in this struggle. Our major recourse is to write our state and federal representative to adopt measure that we can utilize the potential cost savings and reduces pollution of solar generated electricity.

Our letters to our government representatives should ask for means to:

* Encourage greater renewable-energy generation

* Promote customer-sited distributed generation (wind and solar fuels)

* Reduce demand on an ever increasingly strained grid

* Reward investment in renewable technologies

* Facilitate energy independence

* Improve air quality and public health

* Promote in-state economic development.

Most states that have revised their interconnection and net-metering policies have done so in pursuit of these same goals.

By: Paul Calhoun

About the Author:

I have a BS and MS in Metallurgical Engineering. Thirty six years spent in the development of semiconductors. Business experience in start up business plan. Currently, an oyster farmer and interested in helping the environment by deploying solar energy. Please visit my Web Site http://www.charlestonenvironmentalhelp.com

southern maryland



Lagos State was created on May 27, 1967 by virtue of State (Creation and Transitional Provisions) Decree No. 14 of 1967, which restructured Nigeria’s Federation into 12 states. Prior to this, Lagos Municipality had been administered by the Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs as the regional authority, while the Lagos City Council (LCC) governed the City of Lagos. Equally, the metropolitan areas (Colony Province) of Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry were administered by the Western Region.

Lagos state is located in latitude 6035’N, and Longitude 3045’E . with a population of over 14million people but official 2006 census suggest that Lagos population is 9,013,534. The main urban centres in the State are Badagry, Epe, Ikorodu, Ikeja and Lagos. The urbanisation process that has taken place in Lagos has been of such significance in the State and in Nigeria as a whole that it should receive special attention.

Although not European in origin, Lagos represents most spectacularly one of that class of Nigerian cities whose growth and development have been significantly shaped by European influ ences. Starting from a small settlement made by the Awori (a subgroup of the Yorubas), first at EbuteMetta and later (for defence reasons) at iddo, probably in the early part of the 17th century, the settlement of Lagos existed rather quietly up to the end of the 18th century.

Lagos has witness continous restructuting due to increased population. Therefore the paper focus on the various demenssion of spatial restructuring that have occurred , the reasons or what informed such restructuring , the effect and possible solution.

Overpopulation is a condition when an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. In common parlance, the term usually refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth.

Overpopulation is not simply a function of the size or density of the population. Overpopulation can be determined using the ratio of population to available resources


Perhaps before we look at spatial restructuring which is a funstion of economic geography and change we should define economic geography which is the study the (locational, organizational and behavioral) principles and processes associated with the spatial allocation of scarce (human, man-made and natural) resources (which are also distributed spatially) and the spatial patterns and (direct and indirect, social, environmental and economic) consequences resulting from such allocations.”

Spatial restructuring is a concept that talks about change in spatial structure i.e. Change in spatial distribution e.g. population densities, Change in spatial interaction pattern, e.g. migration patterns) and Regional economic development: e.g. Changes in income, employment, human welfare, quality of life. And the factors are related to

• Locational (dis-)advantages & locational change,

• Spatial interaction stimuli and

• Economic development conditions & events:


• Natural resource endowment,

• Human resources (skills, education),

• Employment structure,

• Organizational, institutional & political factors,

• Access to capital, technology & entrepreneurship,

• Trade, migration (e.g. “brain gain” or “brain drain”)

The two dimension to the spatial restructuring of lagos are Population and structural change.


Population change is the growth or decline in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. The term population change can technically refer to any species, but almost always refers to humans, and it is often used informally for the more specific demographic term population change rate.

Growth rate= (+)/ population

Going by all indication that would be presented later on there has been population growth in lagos state due to so many factors known as the pull factors, A pull factor is a feature or event that attracts a person to move to another area, and they include:

1. More or better services in that area : it is a general notion that lagos state provides the best service interms of social, and economic activities, in otherwords Lagos is bothe the social and economic nerve of Nigeria, and as such people tend to move into Lagos to enjoy these dervices provided by the state but it should be noted that other emerging cities are Porth-harcourt, Calabar, Warri and Abuja the capital city.

2. Higher standards of living

3. Higher income

4. Peace (absence of civil strife or warfare): lagos is regarded as a No-Man-Land although this statement is not True as the original Inhabitant of Lagos known as the indegenes are still present but the statement is born out of the relatively peacefull nature of lagos compared to other area where u have religious crisis, ethnic crisis, fight for succession etc. everybody for his/her self.

5. Better behavior among the people (lower crime rates and higher moral standards) : this is fact is as stated above

6. More desirable climate: this is one of the factor the ajudge to the norteheners migrants where there climate is relatively harsh.

7. Immediate distance from family problems: sure when people move away from the villages in Nigeria, they are disconnected from there immediate family but the idea of social network in Africa comes in later on and as such it does not exist for long.

8. Economic stability and less risk of loss of wealth

9. Cultural diversity: Lagos is a home for every body, people from different background, culturally and economically are found in Lagos and as such gives room for sociall and cultural in tegration.

10. Religious or political tolerance (living in a more liberal or less repressive state or country) : a sure bet in Lagos state because both Muslims and Christians are found there and it gives room for every one to practice his/her rligion without fear or favour.

Lagos state been filled with an migrants from almost all the state in Nigeria in search for employment due to it commercial nature; Ajegunle is an area in Lagos, Located in the North-eastern flank of Lagos State the former administrative and commercial city in Nigeria in Ajeromi/Ifelodun Local Government Area/Post Express 1998: Appendix 7) Majority of the migrants provided labour for the industries in Lagos until the economic decline in the 80*s due to the crash in global oil prices. These area did not have a comprehensive planning, rather it was a product of a spontaneous urban sprawl of that time. Human settlements in the area could be traced back into the 50*s as Lagos became s strategic commercial city in the West African sub-region. This are in Lagos has suffered severe social exclusion from the socio-economic life of the city of Lagos. The residents in Lagos Ajegunle area were spurred under these circumstances to develop an informal means of interaction considering the fact that they all faced the problem of socio-economic and ecological decline. Crime was very high, building designs very defective no waste management policy, social life was virtually limited within residents and they were more isolated from the rest of the society. All these causes ageing population and environmental degradation. Population growth as it has been define be as a result of increased birth rate, decrease mortality, and increased immigration.


Population, Structure and Distribution: Estimates by the United Nations and the Lagos State Regional Master Plan put the state’s current population at about 10.6 million inhabitants. However, the 1991 census of Nigeria puts the population of Lagos State at 5,685,781 or 6.42 per cent of the national total.

The figure still makes Lagos State the most populous state in the Federation. With its area of 3,577 sq. km. the smallest in the country, the state’s population density of 1,590 persons per sq. km. is therefore high. The density value for builtup metropolitan Lagos, estimated at 20,000 persons per sq. km. is even higher still. A 1988 estimate indicates that the population of Lagos State had been growing at an annual rate of 8 percent in the urban areas and 3 percent in the rural areas.

Obviously, the urban growth rate has been enhanced by inmigration. However, in view of the movement of the Federal Government to Abuja in December 1991, the growth rates are like ly to have begun to decrease, or to increase at a decreasing rate.

The most populous LGA in the state is Ojo with 17.8 percent of the 1991 population, closely followed by Mushin together with Oshodi/lsolo (17.4 percent) and Lagos Mainland/Surulere (15.3 percent). While the least populated LGA is IbejuLekki (0.4. per cent); the other LGAs occupy various positions in between.

Urbanisation and Human Settlement System: The main urban centres in the State are Badagry, Epe, Ikorodu, Ikeja and Lagos. The urbanisation process that has taken place in Lagos has been of such significance in the State and in Nigeria as a whole that it should receive special attention.

Although not European in origin, Lagos represents most spectacularly one of that class of Nigerian cities whose growth and development have been significantly shaped by European influ ences. Starting from a small settlement made by the Awori (a subgroup of the Yorubas), first at EbuteMetta and later (for defence reasons) at iddo, probably in the early part of the 17th century, the settlement of Lagos existed rather quietly up to the end of the 18th century.

From 1821 onwards, it became an important slave port on the West African coast. Important turning points in the subsequent growth of Lagos include the bombardment of the city by the British in 1851, with the purpose of ousting the slavetrade inclined King Kosoko and restoring Akintoye as King of Lagos; the resulting aban donment of the city by the civilian population and the slow growth thereafter; the formal cession of Lagos as a Colony to Britain in 1861; and the sub sequent establishment of regular government and administration of justice.

Then followed piecemeal addition of hinterland areas to ensure political and commercial stability; the subsequent growth in com merce and the development of communications cuminating in the founding of the Lagos Chambers of Commerce in 1897. The construction of the railway started in 1895 and harbour improvement followed (19081917). The volume of trade has continued to grow over the years.

Subsequently, various public programmes relating to industrial development, swamp reclamation and mosquito campaigns, pipe borne water, transportation facilities, commercial activities and the city’s increasing functions as the capital of the Federation accelerated the growth of Lagos into the greatest single concentration of skills and disposable income in the country. By 1963, the city (the Municipality of Lagos), made up of such components as Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Apapa and other areas had an official population figure of 665,246.

However, the geographic city beyond the boundaries of the Municipality was much larger. The spectacular road development works since the 1970s (the construction of the Eko Bridge, the reconstruction of Ikorodu Road into a 10lane dual carriage way, the construction of the Third Mainland Bridge, the ApapaOworonshoki Expressway, the LagosBadagry Expressway, the Abeokuta Expressway, the Victoria lslandEpe road as well as the interconnecting roads that link them into elabo rate circumferential route ways and circulation paths have been both responses to and catalysts of the explosive growth of metropolitan Lagos.

The process of urbanisation still continues in Lagos and with it comes various problems concern ing administration, land acquisition, housing and rents, sanitation, transportation, water supply and crime. These issues are brought to the attention of the public continually through the news media, and they remain endemic subjects of governmental pol icy and programmes.

The settlement system in Lagos state is obvi ously dominated by metropolitan Lagos which incorporates not less than 16 of the 20 local government areas (LGAs): Agege, Ajeromilfelodun, AmuwoOdofin, Alimosho, Apapa, EtiOsa, lfako ljaye, Ikeja, Kosofe, Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Mushin, Oshodilsolo, Somolu, Surulere and part of Ojo.

In each of the four remaining LGAs, there is typically a focal town surrounded by numerous lowerorder settlements and village communities. In Badagry LGA, the focal town is the ancient settlement of Badagry which was a major slave out post in precolonial times and is reputed as being the first place in Nigeria where Christianity was preached in 1842.

There are about 120 other com munities and villages in the LGA including Ajara, Topo, Panko, Akarakumo, Aseri, Egun and others. The situation in Epe LGA is similar, the focal town being Epe. The other settlements are about 311, including Agbowalkosi, ltoiki, Ejirin, Onisawasawa, Ubuja, lpabodo and numerous others.

IbejuLekki LGA has as the main town, not the local govern ment headquarters which is Akodo but a more developed small town, Ibeju. Distributed irregularly around and between these two are about 153 other village communities, including Lekki, Magbon Alade and others. Finally, Ikorodu LGA has as its focal town the local government headquarters, Ikorodu, which is a veritable commercial city in its own right.

Being the location of the transmitters for the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, the Voice of Nigeria and Lagos State Broadcasting Corporation (Radio and Television), it is an important communication centre as well as a major gate way to the country’s hinterland.

There are about 260 other settlements in the LGA, including lgbogbo, Imota, Maya, Baiyeku, ljede, Majidun, Ajegunie, Agbede, Aguru, Odugunyan and others. These four LGAs Badagry, Epe, IbejuLekki and Ikorodu contain virtually the totality of rural areas in Lagos State.

Table 1.0

Population Growth Rate

Year 1975 1999 2000 2015 1999-2000 2000-2015

Pop/million 3.3 12.8 13.4 23.2 5.6 3.7

United Nations population division(1999)


Name What Region Country Lat Long Elev Ft. Pop Est


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4083333 3.3822222 114 115628


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4083333 3.3822222 114 115628

Abule Ijesha

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5247222 3.3863889 121 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4830556 3.3741667 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6147222 3.2655556 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4152778 3.3694444 114 73624


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6688889 3.4897222 160 259436


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6402778 3.2869444 147 722763


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4577778 3.2875 118 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5786111 3.4108333 121 929196


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6219444 3.3258333 137 751549


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6236111 3.3536111 137 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6347222 3.3544444 137 1032556


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6044444 3.2705556 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4591667 3.3425 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4538889 3.2511111 118 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6061111 3.2825 141 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4488889 3.3369444 114 247815


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6 3.2833333 141 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6066667 3.2644444 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6122222 3.3147222 137 751549


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.62 3.3022222 141 751549


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.3666667 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4219444 3.4925 121 113728


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.45 3.3333333 114 106257


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4497222 3.2936111 118 106257


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4333333 3.4 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.45 3.3333333 114 106257


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6108333 3.2961111 141 751549


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6108333 3.2961111 141 751549


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4730556 3.2980556 118 307463


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4455556 3.3591667 114 247815


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4333333 3.4166667 118 156357

Apapa Eleko

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4333333 3.4166667 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4833333 3.35 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5611111 3.2694444 134 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5827778 3.2552778 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5994444 3.2522222 141 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6027778 3.4911111 127 808742


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4166667 2.8833333 118 23583


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4166667 2.8833333 118 23583


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.45 3.45 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.45 3.45 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.535 3.3947222 121 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6033333 3.2725 141 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4241667 3.2558333 114 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4122222 3.2561111 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5530556 3.4741667 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5452778 3.2730556 131 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5827778 3.2686111 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4738889 3.3311111 118 307463


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6402778 3.3313889 141 1048141

Ebute Ikorodu

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6027778 3.4911111 127 808742


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6027778 3.4911111 127 808742


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4897222 3.3844444 118 591962


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6475 3.3030556 147 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5438889 3.2797222 127 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5522222 3.3072222 127 449144


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4530556 3.3958333 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6452778 3.2908333 147 722763


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4147222 3.2838889 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6008333 3.3644444 131 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6061111 3.3961111 127 1111094


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6061111 3.3961111 127 1111094


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5591667 3.3233333 127 449144


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5980556 3.2677778 141 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5530556 3.4741667 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6286111 3.3480556 137 1032556


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6108333 3.3561111 134 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4241667 3.2558333 114 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4241667 3.2558333 114 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4122222 3.2561111 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5530556 3.4741667 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4122222 3.2561111 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5530556 3.4741667 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5530556 3.4741667 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4697222 3.3802778 114 591962

Idi Oro

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5225 3.36 121 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5719444 3.2844444 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5719444 3.2844444 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5747222 3.2591667 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6436111 3.3288889 141 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.55 3.25 134 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4844444 3.3658333 118 580705

Iganmu Siding

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4844444 3.3658333 118 580705

Igbo Ejo

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4241667 3.3541667 114 247815


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5225 3.3716667 121 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6072222 3.2588889 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4183333 3.3319444 114 106257


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6644444 3.2872222 150 722763


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6327778 3.3413889 137 1032556


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5172222 3.2566667 127 175581


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4819444 3.3802778 118 591962


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4944444 3.3266667 118 307463


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4663889 3.3766667 118 591962


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.675 3.3327778 147 739466

Iju Junction

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.66 3.3222222 144 1048141

Iju Water Works

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.675 3.3327778 147 739466


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5966667 3.3430556 134 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5458333 3.2677778 131 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5458333 3.2677778 131 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4530556 3.4355556 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4155556 3.3652778 114 73624


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4147222 3.2838889 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4147222 3.2838889 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5411111 3.4855556 124 370874


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4241667 3.2830556 114 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4083333 3.3466667 114 73624


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6105556 3.2558333 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4875 3.3661111 118 580705


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5266667 3.3258333 124 420843


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6688889 3.3783333 137 433417


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5508333 3.4755556 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5188889 3.2777778 124 175581


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5266667 3.3258333 124 420843


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5752778 3.2813889 137 352691


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6688889 3.3783333 137 433417


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5316667 3.3230556 124 420843


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4425 3.2866667 114 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5083333 3.3422222 121 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5041667 3.3919444 118 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6594444 3.2986111 150 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4425 3.3102778 114 106257


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4530556 3.3958333 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4147222 3.2838889 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6594444 3.2986111 150 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4530556 3.3958333 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6255556 3.3141667 141 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4961111 3.3877778 118 591962


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4288889 3.4552778 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4288889 3.4552778 118 156357


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5711111 3.3716667 127 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6352778 3.2697222 147 722763


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4505556 3.4708333 118 113728


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4505556 3.4708333 118 113728


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.555 3.3333333 127 449144


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6119444 3.2772222 144 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5291667 3.355 121 730396

Mushin Halt

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5291667 3.355 121 730396

New Lagos

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5027778 3.3641667 118 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4469444 3.4152778 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5472222 3.3702778 124 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5894444 3.2805556 137 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4291667 3.3977778 114 245287


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.435 3.4877778 121 113728


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5713889 3.3963889 124 929196


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6819444 3.4680556 150 259436


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5877778 3.3822222 127 1111094

Oke Ira

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4925 3.3708333 118 580705

Oke Ogbe

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4083333 3.3822222 114 115628


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4530556 3.4355556 118 156357

Oko Agbo

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4083333 3.3822222 114 115628


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4061111 3.2608333 114 0


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5952778 3.2858333 137 553058


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6294444 3.3738889 134 1032556


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4555556 3.2733333 118 5177


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4263889 3.3583333 114 247815


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6391667 3.3566667 137 1032556


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.415 3.3561111 114 73624


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4141667 3.3436111 114 73624


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5708333 3.365 127 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5066667 3.3841667 118 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6005556 3.3836111 127 1111094


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6013889 3.3913889 127 1111094


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5116667 3.3841667 118 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5858333 3.3813889 127 1111094

Orile Oshodi

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.555 3.3436111 127 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5786111 3.4108333 121 929196

Oruba Agboyi

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5786111 3.4108333 121 929196


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5588889 3.3486111 124 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5891667 3.3738889 127 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5522222 3.4855556 124 623381


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6005556 3.3836111 127 1111094


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4725 3.3847222 118 591962


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5477778 3.4066667 121 929196


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5477778 3.4066667 121 929196


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6130556 3.3736111 131 931774


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5780556 3.3344444 127 822372


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5402778 3.3716667 121 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5402778 3.3716667 121 730396

Suru Lere

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5091667 3.3580556 118 730396


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4158333 3.3658333 114 73624

Tarkwa Bay

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4027778 3.3941667 114 115628

Tarqua Bay

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4027778 3.3941667 114 115628


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5091667 3.3855556 118 774734


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.5166667 3.3666667 121 730396

Wasimi Ojokoro

city Lagos State Nigeria 6.6622222 3.2952778 150 1048141


city Lagos State Nigeria 6.4897222 3.3836111 118 591962

Source: Falling Rain Genomics, Inc.( 1996-2004)

The current data on shown below is an indication that there has been restructuring both population and structure change.


Spatial interaction is the flow of products, people, services, or information among places, in response to localized supply and demand.

It is a transportation supply and demand relationship that is often expressed over a geographical space. Spatial interactions usually include a variety of movements such as travel, migration, transmission of information, journeys to work or shopping, retailing activities, or freight distribution.

Edward Ullman, perhaps the leading transportation geographer of the twentieth century, more formally addressed interaction as complementarity (a deficit of a good or product in one place and a surplus in another), transferability (possibility of transport of the good or product at a cost that the market will bear), and lack of intervening opportunities (where a similar good or product that is not available at a closer distance).

3.1 Complementarity

The first factor necessary for interaction to take pace is complementarity.

In order for trade to take place, there has to be a surplus of a desired product in one area and a shortage or demand for that same product in another area.

The greater the distance, between trip origin and trip destination, the less likelihood of a trip occurring and the lower the frequency of trips. An example of complementarity would be that you live in sango ota, Ogun state and want to go to silverbird Galleria in Lagos for vacation/ see a movie, which is located in Victoria Island, Lagos. In this example, the product of the journey is Victoria Island which is the destination while sango Ota is the source. In the same vein we have pwople moving from other part of Nigeria into lagos for various reason’s that have been mentioned above under the pull factor.

3.2 Transferability

The second factor necessary for interaction to take pace is transferability. In some cases, it is simply not feasible to transport certain goods (or people) a great distance because the transportation costs are too high in comparison to the price of the product.

In all other cases where the transportation costs are not out of line with price, we say that the product is transferable or that transferability exists.

This concept is totally in contrast to what happen in Lagos because long distance journey form the north where goods such as agricultural drosuce are transported to lagos for sale and eventual consumption, also people come from other areas like form the east and southern part for employment oppourtunities.

Using our Silverbird Galleriaand employment example, we need to know how many people are going, and the amount of time we have to do the trip (both travel time and time at the destination). If only one person is traveling to lagos state and they need to travel in the same day, then flying may be the most realistic option of transferability cost ranges between 7,000 – 15,0000 naira round-trip; however, most of them use road transport which will cost far lesser than the amount for air travel

As one can see, transferability can be accomplished by one of several different modes of transportation depending on the number of people, distance, the average cost to transport each person, and the time available for travel.

3.3 Lack of Intervening Opportunities

The third factor necessary for interaction to take place is the absence or lack of intervening opportunities. There may be a situation where complementarity exists between an area with a high demand for a product and several areas with a supply of that same product in excess of local demand.

In this particular case, the first area would be unlikely to trade with all three suppliers, but would instead trade with the supplier that was closest or least costly. In our example of the trip to lagos, “Is there any other destination identical to Victoria Island, providing an intervening opportunity between other states to lagos?” The obvious answer would be “no.” However, if the question was, “Is there any other area that will provide the same oppourtunity lagos provides for all comers in terms of education, economics and social life? The answer is NOI, similar to Lagos is may be Abuja, Port-Harcourth, Calabar, but not the same as Lagos, at least not to be compared to Lagos..

As you can see from this example, there are numerous factors that could affect complementarity, transferability, and lack of intervening opportunities

We have seen the cause / what will inform the spatial interaction with lagos and the spatial restructuring that has occurs let us look at the effect of these actions.


Rapid human population growth has a variety of consequences. Population grows fastest in the world’s poorest countries. High fertility rates have historically been strongly correlated with poverty, and high childhood mortality rates. Falling fertility rates are generally associated with improved standards of living, increased life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality. Overpopulation and poverty have long been associated with increased death, and disease. 25 People tightly packed into unsanitary housing are inordinately vulnerable to natural disasters and health problems which is a major in Lagos state.

However, most of the lagos 13million desperately poor people live in less developed areas. One in five lagos inhabitant reportedly lives below the country’s official poverty line The rapid expansion of population size observed since the days of the colonial masters has been a cause of various social vices.

Poverty is a condition of chronic deprivation and need at the family level. Poverty, is a major concern of humankind, because poverty everywhere reduces human beings to a low level of existence. Poor people lack access to enough land and income to meet basic needs. A lack of basic needs results in physical weak-ness and poor health. Poor health decreases the ability of the poor to work and put them deeper into poverty.

Instead of allowing poverty to persist, it is important to limit our number be-cause in dense populations too many lack adequate food, water, shelter, education and employment. High fertility, which has been traditionally associated with pros-perity, prestige, and security for the future, now jeopardizes chances for many to achieve health and security

Rich and poor cities alike are affected by population growth, though the population of industrial countries are growing more slowly than those of develop-ing one. At the present growth rates, the population of economically developed countries would double in 120 years. The Third World, with over three quarters of the world’s people, would double its numbers in about 33 years. This rapid dou-bling time reflects the fact that 37 percent of the developing world’s population is under the age of 15 and entering their most productive childbearing years. In the Third World countries (excluding China), 40 percent of the people are under 15; in some African countries, nearly half are in this age group.

Lagos current and projected population growth calls for an increase in efforts to meet the needs for food, water, health care, technology and education. In the poorest countries, massive efforts are needed to keep social and economic con-ditions from deteriorating further; any real advances in well-being and the quality of life are negated by further population growth. Many countries lack adequate supplies of basic materials needed to support their current population. Rapid population growth can affect both the overall quality of life and the degree of hu-man suffering on Earth.



There is controversy over whether population growth is good or bad. Over-population and continuing population growth are making substantial contributions to the destruction of Earth’s life support systems. In the past, human populations have rarely been subject to explosion. In numbers. The powerful long-term mo-mentum that is built into the human age structure means that the effects of fertility changes become apparent only in the future. For these reasons, it is now conven-tional practice to use the technology of population projection as a means of better understanding the implications of trends.

Population projections represent the playing out into the future of a set of as-sumptions about future fertility and mortality rates. More public education is needed to develop more awareness about population issues. Facts like the size or the growth rate of the human population should be in the head of every citizen. Schools should inform students about population issues in order for them to make projections about the future generations.

Action plans and strategies can be developed to increase public understanding of how rapid population growth limits chances for meeting basic needs. The spirit of open communication, and empowerment of individual women and men will be key to a successful solution to many population problems. Collective vision about health care, family planning and women’s education at the community level build a basis for action. The creation of action plans help to meet challenges to find coop-erative solutions. Free and equal access to health care, family planning and educa-tion are desirable in their own right and will also help reduce unwanted fertility.

Individual choice, human rights and collective responsibility are key to al-lowing families to plan the size and spacing of their children. It is essential to achieve a balance between population and the available resources. Teachers, par-ents, community workers and other stakeholders should extend the range of choices about available resources to individuals, especially women, and by equal-izing opportunities between the genders from birth onwards.

Teachers, parents, other educators, politicians and other concerned citizens can practice how to make good decisions in everyday life. Decisions about family size, and resource will affect the future generations. Through commu-nity forums, specific issues about the population growth can be discussed and possible action plans can be developed.

Teachers, as well as students can use the information super highway to gain knowledge about other countries’ population and resources. Teachers can help students with problems and decision making on a daily basis. The investigation of world population will raise the level of awareness, so that we can learn to handle problems based on data. This data can help us to analyze our situations in a practical way.

Teachers, students, parents and other stakeholders can look for trends in the population explosion. They can hold community meetings at school to discuss how this issue presents a challenge to the big picture of human population on the planet “Earth”.

Above all we should

Once we recognize the fact that overpopulation is a problem and that increasing standards of living around the world will add to our resource-use and pollution-management challenges, it’s tempting to start thinking that disease, poverty, and premature death are unfortunate but necessary (as long as they happen to someone else, of course). We must resist any such temptation and work toward better solutions.

We should:

• continue to strive to reduce suffering by combating disease and poverty around the world;

• continue to improve resource efficiency and pollution control so that standards of living can rise without negative impact; and

• keep human population to numbers that are sustainable.

On the population front, that means:

• making sure people around the world have access to family planning services;

• empowering women in developing countries economically, socially, and legally in a manner that results in them having an equal say (with their husbands) in reproductive decisions;

• modifying school curricula to include information on population levels and implications for the future;

• reforming tax laws in a way that encourages couples to have no more than two children. (They would still be able to have as many kids as they want, but the tax code would no longer subsidize more than two.)

People are a good thing, but population growth without limit is not. The US and all developed countries should reinvigorate their international efforts to slow population growth.

By: owomero stanley

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