Charles P. Arnold, Jr. illustrates four classes of suffering as a model based solely on Scriptures in his self-published book ‘Suffering – A Biblical Study’.

The book author defines each class according to an individual’s faith in God, obedience to His Word and instructions, and the main source of suffering.

Arnold explains that suffering could be stimulated by internal forces affecting individuals or by external factors surrounding them.

He also introduces the Theology of Synergy based on the Greek translation of ancient manuscripts highlighting the eighth chapter and twenty-eighth verse of Paul’s letter to the Romans to explain how God uses the suffering of a Christian in bringing about good within the universal church.

“This sensitive topic is supported throughout (the book) with verses from Scripture. Everyone who suffers will find strength and encouragement in God’s word as explained in Suffering – A Biblical Study,” the book author said.

He also provides insights on how one could rise above suffering and painful circumstances through the power of prayer, meditation and support groups from the church.

Dr. Charles P. Arnold, Jr. is an Atmospheric Scientist who served the United States Air Force for 25 years. He studied theology and writing after his retirement.

Arnold is also the book author of ‘The Eschaton – A Biblical Interpretation of the End of the World’. His two books are purely based on Scriptures and are published by Xlibris Corporation.

He and his wife Elaine reside in southern Maryland where he actively serves in the church and the community.

About Xlibris

Xlibris was founded in 1997 and, as the leading publishing services provider for authors, has helped to publish more than 20,000 titles. Xlibris is based in Philadelphia, PA and provides authors with direct and personal access to quality publication in hardcover, trade paperback, custom leather-bound, and full-color formats.

For more information, please visit , e-mail or call at 1-888-795-4247, to receive a free publishing guide.

By: Michael McCain

About the Author:

Xlibris is a book publisher founded in 1997 and, as the leading publishing services provider for authors, has helped to publish more than 20,000 titles. Xlibris is based in Philadelphia, PA and provides authors with direct and personal access to quality publication in hardcover, trade paperback, custom leather-bound, and full-color formats.

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Want to study for an online degree program? There are many online universities and colleges offering high quality education online.


Online Degree Programs:


Online degree programs offer many advantages such as flexibility and cost savings. Learning can take place at anywhere in the world, individual student can choose where, when and how to study.


Online programs are offered at different levels ranging from Certificate program, Diploma program, Associate degree, Bachelor degree, Graduate Certificate, Graduate Diploma, Master degree to Doctorate degree. Subject areas include business, psychology, nursing, education, sociology, information technology and so on.


Top 10 Online Universities:


According to “The Best and Worst Online Degree Programs” 2007, the top ten online universities in the world are as follows:


(1) The University of London (UoL)

(2) The University of South Africa

(3) The University of Phoenix

(4) The University of Texas

(5) University of South Australia (UniSA)

(6) University of Southern Queensland (USQ)

(7) The University of Maryland University College

(8) Golden Gate University

(9) Ellis College of NYIT

(10) Stanford University


The University of London is ranked number one in the world for its outstanding online degree programs. It offers more than 100 online and distance qualifications through the University of London External Programme. Students studying through the External Programme are examined to the same standard as full-time on-campus students.


The University of South Australia is the leading provider of distance education in Australia. With more than 32000 on campus and offshore students, it is now the largest university in South Australia.


Prospective students are advised to check the accreditation and reputation of online universities and colleges before enrolling into a program of study.


Please refer to the relevant guides for more information on the latest university ranking and world university ranking.

By: Loke Yuen Wong

About the Author:

The author, Loke Yuen Wong, holds an MBA from Heriot-Watt University (UK) and a BCom degree from The University of Adelaide (Australia). Other qualifications include the Postgraduate Diploma in Bus. Administration, Diploma in Instructor Skills, Diploma in Inferential Statistics, Group Diploma in Accounting, Group Diploma in Management Accounting, ACCA CertIFR, Pre-Cert (ES) TESOL, Certificate in Managing Performance, Certificate in Book-keeping & Accounts and English for Commerce.

HAVE you noticed the marvelous sense of timing of living things? Each year plants germinate, grow and flower according to schedule. Not all are on the same schedule some flower in the spring, others in the summer and still others in autumn and early winter. But each species knows the right time to carry out its various activities.

It is similar with animals. They breed, reproduce, become dormant, migrate and perform other functions as if they were following a precise timetable. Consider the insects that spend winter in a dormant state called diapause. Toward the end of summer, while the weather is still warm, they interrupt their busy feeding and reproduction activities and begin to settle into their dormant state. How do they know that winter is near?

Also, there are the birds that migrate to the tropics to spend the winter. With the coming of spring in the north, they head for home. Since the temperature in the tropics is about the same as when the birds arrived, how do they know that it is warming up back home? Many people have asked questions like these. Have you?

The Wondrous Timing Device

It is believed that the main timing device of living things is light. It used to be commonly thought that the changing temperatures of the season triggered the various responses in plants and animals. But temperature is variable; it is inconsistent from year to year. Light, on the other hand, is reliable. On any given day of the year the length of daylight will be the same. It never varies. Thus a living organism is provided with exact information on the advance of the seasons.

This is not to say that temperature or other factors may not also affect the seasonal rhythm of plants and animals. They apparently do. But the main timing device seems to be the length of daylight. That the activities of living things are scheduled by means of this wondrous clock is a relatively recent discovery.

An Important Investigation

In 1920 investigators were studying a certain variety of tobacco called Maryland Mammoth. They were trying to determine why it was late in flowering when grown near Washington, D.C. Although the plant was ready to flower for days, something prevented it from doing so until too late in the season for its seeds to mature.

Many experiments were conducted, but they failed to reveal the reason for the delayed flowering. Finally plants kept in a greenhouse were artificially given a shortened daily exposure of light. This did it! The plants bloomed earlier than those that were grown outside. This gave the clue as to why the Maryland Mammoth will not bloom until late in the season near Washington, D.C. It is because not until late summer has the daylight decreased to the proper length for this plant to flower!

Does light similarly affect the functions of other plants? Further research by these investigators showed that it does. It was discovered that plants can be divided into three groups, depending on their reaction to length of daylight.

First, there is the group that includes plants, such as tomatoes and cucumbers, that are not choosy as to the length of day. A second group are called “short-day” plants. These will not flower until the daily dose of light is below a certain number of hours. The third group are called “long-day” plants. These flower when daylight extends beyond a certain number of hours.

Consequence of Findings

These investigations answered many questions. They explain why plants of a given species can be planted at different times of the year, and yet all flower at the same time. And they reveal why certain plants bloom in particular districts, but will not flower at all in others.

Agriculturists now routinely determine the light requirements of plants. Some of them have very specific length-of-daylight needs. For example, various varieties of onions and soybeans do best only when grown within a belt of latitude of 150 miles. If they are grown either north or south of this region they may fail as a crop.

The daylight needs of plants can result in disappointment to flower lovers. While on a trip a person may obtain a colorful plant for his garden, but back home it may not bloom. Why? The daylight where he lives may not be of suitable length for the plant to flower.

For example, there is the rock-garden plant Sedum telephium, which grows in southern Vermont. But it needs a daily dose of sixteen hours or more of light in order to bloom. It receives this in Vermont. However, if one took it very far south it would fail to bloom because of insufficient daylight.

On the other hand, a person in northern Maine may be grateful that there is little or no ragweed there. Ragweed will not flower until daylight decreases to fourteen and a half hours. This does not occur in northern Maine until after August 1, so it does not allow enough time for seeds to mature before cold weather comes.

How Plants Detect Light

Learning these facts about the responses of plants to length of daylight made something else apparent. Plants must have something within them that detects the change in length of daylight and that causes them to respond accordingly. Just recently this substance, called “phytochrome,” has been isolated.

Phytochrome is a bluish, light-sensitive pigment that absorbs red light. It has been shown that many plants, when exposed to the red wavelength of light, mature more rapidly. Somehow the light acts on the phytochrome to regulate a plant’s growth changes, from seed stage to maturity. But it is not understood just how this is accomplished.

Manipulating the Light

Many gardeners now use to good advantage this knowledge about the responses of plants to light. By adjusting the length of exposure to light they can make a plant bloom when they want it to. Thus in winter they enjoy flowers that normally grow only in summer, and those that normally bloom in autumn they may have in other seasons.

A chrysanthemum, for instance, is normally an autumn-flowering plant. But it can be made to bloom in summer. Just cover it with a cardboard carton in the late afternoons, and remove the carton in the morning. The extended period of darkness will cause the chrysanthemums to react as if it were autumn, and they will bloom with the summer flowers.

On the other hand, a person may want to enjoy in winter flowers that normally bloom only in summer. By giving them daily doses of artificial light after the day has ended, these plants can be made to react as if the long summer days had arrived. Thus they will bloom during the short days of winter.

Effect upon Animals

After discovering the remarkable effects of the length of daylight upon plants, research was done to ascertain whether animals were similarly affected. As a result, many animals, too, were found to time their seasonal routines by the length of daylight.

The first bird experiments were conducted on starlings. Normally starlings mate in spring, when the days grow longer. However, the short days of December were lengthened artificially by turning lights on the birds after the sun went down. In a few days the starlings began to molt and take on the colorful plumage of their springtime mating season. Their breeding schedule was advanced four months by increasing the length of their daily exposure to light!

Similar experiments were conducted on ferrets, which also normally breed in spring or early summer. These small animals, too, mated in winter when they were exposed to extra periods of light. Both starlings and ferrets are long-day creatures. They are among those creatures that respond sexually to long periods of light.

However, many other animals, such as goats, sheep and deer, breed in the autumn. The shorter length of daylight affects them sexually. Thus sheep breeders, who want early spring lambs, limit their animals’ exposure to daylight late in the summer. By bringing the sheep into dark sheds toward the end of day in July and August, the reproduction process is started earlier.

Many interesting experiments have also been conducted on insects, including the silkworm. The eggs, laid in the fall, pass the winter in a dormant state. They hatch into larvae, or worms, in spring. The larvae soon change into pupae, and then into adult moths. But eggs laid in early summer do not pass through a period of dormancy.

Experiments reveal that it is the length of daylight that determines why eggs laid in early summer do not go into a state of dormancy while those laid in the fall do. By artificial regulation of the light, silkworm moths can be made to reproduce generation after generation without any of their eggs entering a stage of dormancy. But when the length of light exposure is changed, moths lay eggs that become dormant.

As with plants, there obviously is some mechanism within animals that triggers their various responses to length of light. It is believed that a hormone is involved. But few details are known as to how the light-length messages are received or transmitted.

Although man has learned much about the many marvels of creation, he is continually reminded of how much remains a mystery to him. The study of light’s effects on living things again illustrates this.

By: Lenith Hinaloc

About the Author:

Did you find this article useful? For more useful tips, hints, points to ponder and keep in mind, do please browse for more information at our websites. and

The Greeks termed asbestos the “miracle mineral” because it was soft, supple and could withstand heat. Miracle, indeed! Unfortunately, scientists have since shown that extended periods of exposure to asbestos can be deadly. You have to wonder how many of the Greeks fell ill late in life due to their exposure to this “miracle mineral.”

Around the end of World War II, asbestos became very popular with manufacturers and builders because of the same principles known to the Greeks. Asbestos is heat-resistant, fire-retardant, has tremendous sound absorption qualities and is very strong. Asbestos has been used in such products as brake shoes for vehicles, joint compound, stage curtains, interior fire doors, insulation, vinyl flooring and adhesives, fireproof clothing for fire fighters and the list goes on.

Prior to this, even dating back to the Greeks, physicians were starting to see a correlation between asbestos workers and medical conditions that were affecting their lungs. In 1898, the British Chief Inspector of Factories indicated asbestos workers ‘easily demonstrated’ health risks. In 1932, the U.S. Bureau of Mines sent a report to Eagle-Picher (one of the largest producers of asbestos) stating that “it is now known that asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous dusts to which man is exposed.”

These types of reports continued until the late 1980s when the U.S. EPA issued its Asbestos Ban and Phase Out Rule. Since then, buildings and products containing asbestos have been reclaimed and the allowable limits on asbestos in the workplace have been regulated to a greatly decreased level. Removing asbestos from buildings now requires heavy protection for both the workers and the area being reclaimed.

Unfortunately, for thousands of people employed in asbestos manufacturing plants and other industries where asbestos has been heavily used, the regulations may have come too late. It may take years, even decades, for the signs and symptoms of asbestos poisoning, or mesothelioma, to appear.

While the asbestos fibers are amazingly beautiful – resembling the snowy white beard of an aging southern gentleman – when inhaled, the sharp fibers (similar to fiberglass) imbed themselves into the lining around the lungs or abdomen and cause the deadly disease known as Mesothelioma.

By: Patricia Woloch

About the Author:

If you or a loved one worked in an asbestos manufacturing plant or other industry where asbestos was used, you could still be at risk for contracting mesothelioma. Please contact the Baltimore Mesothelioma Lawyers at Parker, Dumler & Kiely, LLP for help.

southern maryland

Whether you are moving to Baltimore, Maryland or another city in the state, you’ll need to find the right moving company for your needs. Any move into Maryland can be fraught with confusion and hassle; using skilled movers will eliminate the majority of this stress and help you have the best move possible. So, how do you determine the best moving companies for your needs?

The first thing you’ll need to do is define your budget. How much money can you afford to spend on moving companies? The answer to this question will dictate what type of moving service you choose, a full service or a company that does not pack your possessions for you.

Once you have determined how much cash you’re willing to lay out for movers, you can begin looking into the different companies available. Reputation and experience should be the first things that you look for. These are the two single largest determining factors in how well a company will perform for you. Maryland movers should be chosen based on expertise, rather than on initial price. Many homeowners find, to their surprise, that low cost does not always equate to a good experience.

Additionally, you should find out what the company offers. Do they offer to pack your belongings for you? If so, how much do they charge? Do they provide the packing materials and supplies or must you provide them? Does the moving company offer insurance to pay for any items damaged in transit? These are just a few of the questions that will have to be answered when you choose a moving company.

International moving into Maryland carries even more questions and hurdles, especially if vehicles are involved. Moving cars or trucks into the country is not something that every moving company offers. You’ll need to find an expert, a company with the experience to back up their offer. There are many moving companies that offer international moving services, but you’ll need to find a good website that offers side by side comparisons so that you can determine which company is the best fit for you.

Finding answers for your moving questions is much easier than you may think. You can find a vast amount of information available online to make your Maryland move much simpler. You can find a company that is both affordable and high quality, who will guarantee the safe delivery of your possessions.

By: Robert Blake

About the Author:

Robert Blake is a moving relocation specialist and has been in the industry for several years. He provides moving and relocation resources through his website at, a free resources that is designed to assist you in your moving and relocating.

Mortgages are associated with loans that are secured on properties that may be residential or commercial. They are generally classified as fixed or adjustable rate mortgages. Mortgage companies provide these loans, and they also do a lot of other things as well.

Mortgage is a term that actually refers to an agreement based on which an individual can borrow money from an organization by keeping property as collateral. These arrangements are usually administered by Mortgage Brokers. These brokers are agents who either work individually or for a bank or loan institution, and they earn through commission. Mortgage brokers also help the borrowers in sourcing the best loan, which suits his needs and requirements.

As an industry it is one that has become very competitive with many finance companies entering the market over the last several years, and more entering month after month.

In Maryland and other states in the US, there are two parties in a mortgage, the creditor providing the loan, and the debtor who takes the loan. Other parties that may be involved in the process can be a legal advisor, a mortgage broker and a financial advisor.

The home mortgages process in Maryland starts with the submission of an application and documentation about credit history, income etc. It’s wise to shop around, collecting different information on mortgages in Maryland.

For a person to be eligible for a mortgage in Maryland, the lending company analyzes the credit report of the borrower. Hence, it is very important to have an impressive credit report when approaching a lender for a mortgage in order to get a favorable rate. However, there are lending companies that offer mortgages for people with bad or no credit record.

It should also be noted that like conventional loans, mortgages can be repaid in various ways. Capital and interest, interest-only, no capital or interest, etc.

By: Clyde Lee Dennis

About the Author:

Information and applications for Maryland mortgages. Ability Mortgage Group is a leader in mortgage solutions.


This automatically results in inefficiency, disgust, frustration. This is the right time to take a break. Just a short vacation with your near and dear ones will reinstate that enthusiasm in you. And you can get back to your work with all the more spirit. If you want to enjoy white sand, beaches, a boardwalk that will stretch you from here to eternity then you should opt for Ocean City, Maryland. It consists too much of its fair share of charm as a holiday destination. It draws a large number of visitors from far away to its playful shores, every year. To feel entrapped in the flow of compassion that will escort you straight to thrill, sun, and best diversions, you need to visit the place. And what can be better than Ocean city Maryland vacation rental for accommodation.

Ocean city Maryland vacation rental offers you great comfort within your limited budget. There is some aura of old-fashion and innocence about a boardwalk; it symbolizes companionship, pleasure, and frolic. You can have a walk with your near and dear ones. People can laugh and have fun when there is a spot for it, and boardwalks serve as the perfect attraction for the everlasting activities that describe a relaxed vacation from exertion, school, and the common pressures of mundane life.

Ocean city Maryland vacation rental is relatively inexpensive, as compared to hotels, motels or any other accommodation. It makes you feel, as if you are living in your second home. A trip to Ocean city Maryland vacation rental will replenish your past yearnings. Make some plan to spend a few days at Ocean city Maryland vacation rental to make up for lost time that you have been spending on your work and feel much younger, and reconnected to your very own fanciful side. With Ocean city Maryland vacation rental you will have a large number of benefits, these can be briefed as

• Affordability

• Privacy

• Pool

• Parking lot

• Kitchen amenities

Don’t be amazed with all such advantages; there are many more additional advantages of Ocean city Maryland vacation rental. For instance, it has separate living room, where you can rest in a couch, watching your favorite DVD or tune in to your favorite music. Moreover, you can cook dainty dishes for your loved ones, as it offers you fully furnished kitchen.

To realize all adventurous and comforting aspects of Ocean City Maryland, you must opt for a vacation rental property so that you will accentuate the ample positives of this vacation. You can find Ocean city Maryland vacation rental with online search. Your children will be glad about having sufficient room to spread out. The modern decorum along with all the basic amenities and a king-sized double bed will give you royal feel. All this will create an experience unlike any you have ever had.

By: Sylvestor Johnson

About the Author:

For More Article Visit ::


Maryland Singles are there and can be found. If you have been thinking that your dating days are over and no matter what you do you will never get a single person, think again. There are many people in Maryland and some of them are single and searching. You can meet with Maryland singles in clubs, parks, beaches and when you take a cruise around Maryland. You will however need to be a friendly person. A person who can be talked to, appreciated, and loved. When you go out to meet with the people, do not keep to yourself and silently hope that some nice person will come to talk to you. Be the first one to approach them, ask them if they are okay and if you can be of any help.

Meet with Maryland singles in a cruse ship. Take a tour around Maryland and at the end of the day get to meet with a wonderful person. Maryland has a cruise ship that goes around for seven days, it also has another one that goes round for fourteen days. Most of this cruise ship start their journey from Baltimore. There are very attractive things and places you will see while in this cruise. It is a very good way of travelling and relaxing. While in the cruise, make sure you talk to some of the people who are in the ship. You might find love in that cruise ship. There are a lot of people who have found love this way. You can take the Royal Caribbean’s Grandeur of the seas and Norwegian Cruise Line’s or you can take the 14 Night Special Caribbean Cruise.

The beach is also a nice place to go and meet with Maryland singles. Maryland has beaches like Belcamp beach, Lane Beach, Wicomico Beach, Wild Rose Shore and Bathing Beach. It has a lot of beaches that you can go to. You can go to one of the beaches that is near your area that allows swimming if you love swimming and have fun with the water or you can go to any other beach and walk around on the sand and at the same time get yourself a nice tan. While in one of those beaches, talk to the people around, make new friends with the people in there. It doesn’t matter what *** you make friends with, they could turn out to be very beneficial in future.

Visit the parks and meet with some Maryland singles. There are many people in the parks. Some of this people are single and looking to find someone special. Make it easy for them. Talk to some of the people, find out what they do for fun, make small talks with them. Do not mind the people who do not respond in a positive manner, stick with those who respond nicely to you. You might find someone you will get interested in if you keep talking to them. Maryland has parks like Sandy Point State Park, Martinak State Park, Patapsco Valley State Park and Point Lookout State Park.

By: Francis Githinji

About the Author:

Francis K. Githinji Is An Online Dating Expert. His Latest ProjectMaryland Singles


Thousands of Ford Explorer occupants have been severely injured or killed in rollover accidents due to poorly designed Ford Explorers equipped with defective Firestone tires. Ford Motor Company and Bridgestone/Firestone covered-up knowledge of deadly product defects for over ten years.

A new law, the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation (TREAD) Act, was passed in recognition of the manufacturers’ failure to divulge the deadly SUV/tire combination. Although both Ford and Firestone are to blame for the multitude of deaths, the root problems begin and end with Ford Motor Company.

Thousands of people have suffered injury and death due to the Ford Explorer/Firestone tire combination. According to an August 27, 2001 report, the federal government has linked 203 deaths and over 700 injured occupants, in the United States alone, to the poorly designed Ford Explorer and its defective Firestone tires (1).

The Icfai Center for Management Research estimates that the SUV/tire combination is responsible for over 250 deaths and more than 3,000 injuries in the United States (2).

According to the information collected by the National Highway Traffic Association (NHTSA), approximately 85 percent of the deaths caused by the Ford/Firestone defects occurred in the southern-most regions of the United States.

The following are the number of deaths per state caused by the SUV/tire combination according to an April 2001 report by Public Citizen (3).

– California: 28 fatalities

– Nevada: 5 fatalities

– Arizona: 15 fatalities

– Montana: 1 fatality

– Colorado: 1 fatality

– New Mexico: 7 fatalities

– Nebraska: 1 fatality

– Oklahoma: 8 fatalities

– Texas: 35 fatalities

– Arkansas: 3 fatalities

– Mississippi: 3 fatalities

– Michigan: 1 fatality

– Massachusetts: 2 fatalities

– New Jersey: 1 fatality

– Maryland: 4 fatalities

– Pennsylvania: 1 fatality

– Ohio: 1 fatality

– Kentucky: 2 fatalities

– Tennessee: 4 fatalities

– Alabama: 3 fatalities

– Georgia: 1 fatality

– Florida: 28 fatalities

Ford Motor Company approved the design of the Firestone P235/75R15 ATX tire on June 11, 1987 (4). It was specifically designed for use on the Ford Explorer and was used as original equipment when the vehicle was introduced in 1990.

Bridgestone/Firestone began mass-producing the 15-inch ATX tire in 1990. The tire was redesigned in 1995 and 1996 when it was renamed the ATX II and the Wilderness AT (5).

The Ford Explorer was first introduced in March of 1990 as the successor of the Bronco II. The Bronco II was known as being prone to rollover collisions; however Ford Motor Company designed the Explorer with the same frame and similar wheelbase-to-height ratio as the Bronco II.

Ford knew that the Explorer would continue the same rollover problems of the Bronco II; however it was much more cost effective to continue the production of the Explorer with the same rollover prone frame and body style than to make any changes.

The stability problems of the Ford Explorer were known early and were well documented. Ford’s own engineers recommended changes to the Explorer’s design numerous times to counteract the vehicles propensity to rollover. The most important recommendations included: changes to the Explorer’s suspension, increasing its tract width, lowering its center of gravity and using smaller tires. The face of their own engineers, Ford did not make changes the design of the Explorer. Instead, Ford management decided to remove air from the tires, lowering the recommended pounds per square inch (psi) to 26. Firestone recommended a tire pressure of 30 psi, with a maximum 35 psi.

Despite the change in tire pressure, the Ford Explorer continued to be much more prone to rollovers than other vehicles on the road. Leon Robertson, a retired Yale University epidemiologist, conducted a study on vehicle occupant deaths in tire-related accidents using federal data from 1990 to 1997.

According to this study, 91 percent of the Ford Explorer occupants that died in tire-related accidents involved rollovers. However, only 28 percent of tire-related deaths in cars involved rollovers (6).

Ford’s decision to deflate the tires increased the Explorers rolling resistance (a positive consequence), however it also produced a lower fuel economy (a negative consequence). In order to improve the Explorer’s fuel economy without decreasing its rolling resistance, Ford ordered Firestone to decrease the weight of the tires. In 1994, the tires’ weight was reduced by about 10 percent.

According to Public Citizen, the weight decrease was achieved by reducing the gauge of various internal components, modifying the sub tread compound, using a lightweight belt package, and making specific modifications to the sidewall of the tire (7). The newly designed tire was lighter and subsequently less durable, therefore making it more susceptible to tread separations.

Tire-tread separations resulting in rollover collisions proved to be a problem almost immediately after the Ford Explorer was introduced in 1990. According to Public Citizen, at least 5 lawsuits concerning the SUV/tire combination were filed before 1993, and at least 15 lawsuits were filed by the end of 1996.

Consumers and dealers from the United States and foreign countries filed thousands of complaints. By September 19, 2000, there were 2,200 complaints involving 103 deaths and more than 400 injuries.

Many state agencies, such as law enforcement, national park services and wildlife protection agencies, use the Ford Explorer as their company vehicles. By 1996, several state agencies began having major problems with tread separations of Firestone tires on Ford Explorers.

On June 20, 1996, Lowell Whitaker, Arizona Game and Fish Department manager, sent a memo to his regional supervisor describing two tire “blow out” of Firestone tires on Ford Explorers. Whitaker also informs that the Department of Public Safety had endured a series of collisions caused by tread separations of Firestone tires (8).

The problem of tread separation was noticed much earlier in other countries. By 1997, Ford dealers in the Middle East began to report similar tread separation problems on the Explorers. An internal Ford memo from Carlos Mazzorin (Ford’s group vice president, Asia Pacific Operations, South American Operations and global purchasing) dated August 27, 1999 states: “Issue description: While driving the vehicle at high speeds, for prolonged periods of time, the tire tread separated (belt edge separation) from the main carcass of the tire. 19 rollovers attributed to this issue have occurred in Saudi Arabia, Oman and Qatar combined. Several fatalities have resulted. The issue has also occurred in Venezuela, and fatalities have also resulted in that market.”

By 1999, Ford replaced Firestone tires on 46,912 of its SUVs in Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Thailand, Malaysia and Colombia9. However, Ford and Firestone failed to inform U.S. authorities and consumers of the problems.

Ford Motor Company and Bridgestone/Firestone knew about the instability problems of Ford Explorers and Firestone tire tread separations long before the problems gained public attention.

On February 7, 2000, Houston television station KHOU aired a report that spotlighted the tread separation problems of Firestone tires on Ford Explorers. The CBS affiliate station reported the story of numerous deaths and lawsuits caused by Firestone tread separations and Ford Explorer rollovers. The station’s report prompted several dozen people in Texas to report similar problems to authorities.

Almost immediately following the KHOU report, NHTSA began studying the problem of Firestone tires on Ford Explorers. On March 6, 2000, NHTSA began a preliminary investigation after receiving dozens of inquiries and complaints. By May 2, 2000, the agency launched a formal investigation into 47 million Firestone ATX, ATX II, and Wilderness tires. NHTSA found two major problems with Ford Motor Company and Bridgestone/Firestone in their investigation.

The agency found that there was an unusually high failure rate of Firestone tires on Ford Explorers and that Ford and Firestone withheld pertinent information from the public and from authorities regarding the deadly SUV/tire combination.

Although Ford and Firestone began replacing Firestone tires outside the United States as far back as 1998, the manufacturers did not conduct recalls in the U.S. until August 2000. NHTSA publicly announced its investigation of 46 deaths related to the Ford Explorer/Firestone tire combination on August 7, 2000.

A couple of days later, on August 9, 2000, Bridgestone/Firestone announced a voluntary recall of 6.5 million 15″ ATX, ATX II, and Wilderness AT tires. Almost a year later, in May 2001, Ford announced that it was recalling all 13 million Firestone Wilderness AT tires that remained on its vehicles.

On November 1, 2000, NHTSA enacted the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act. The TREAD Act was passed in recognition of Ford and Firestone’s failure to divulge the deadly SUV/tire combination to United States authorities.

The new Act gives NHTSA authority to require motor vehicle and vehicle equipment manufacturers to provide information about possible defects in the United States or in foreign countries. The idea is to ensure that NHTSA receives appropriate data, related to foreign recall actions and internal company information on claims and lawsuits related to defects, in a timely fashion.

Although both Ford and Firestone are to blame, Ford Motor Company is primarily responsible for the multitude of deaths. Ford was behind most of the key decisions that resulted in such a dangerous SUV/tire combination. The Ford Explorer is defectively designed. It has an inexcusably high rollover propensity that Ford Motor Company has known about since the vehicles introduction in 1990. The tread problems of the Firestone tires were primarily due to the tires performance specifications demanded by Ford.

The Ford Explorer is extremely rollover prone due to a high center of gravity and narrow wheelbase. In order to counteract this deadly problem, Ford removed air from the tires to increase the Explorer’s rolling resistance. However, the lower tire pressure resulted in a lower fuel economy. Then, in an attempt to improve fuel economy, Ford ordered that Firestone lower the weight of the tires. However, the removal of weight resulted in a weaker and less durable tire making it more susceptible to tread separations.

The instability of the Ford Explorer and the tire tread separation of Bridgestone/Firestone tires was known within the automobile industry long before any recalls were ever carried out. Hundreds of injuries and deaths have occurred due to the deadly SUV/tire combination.

The design and subsequent re-design of the Firestone tire was Ford’s attempt to use a cost effective cosmetic remedy to fix a serious defectively designed vehicle. Ford chose to address the Explorer’s stability problems by altering the tire specifications instead of actually resolving the root problem – the defective design of the Ford Explorer.

By: John Bisnar

About the Author:

John Bisnar is a partner at Newport Beach Personal Injury Law Firm Bisnar Chase. The Bisnar Chase law firm has dedicated their practice to victims of serious injuries due to defective products, negligence and malpractice.

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southern maryland

There is plenty to see in Baltimore, Maryland whether you are visiting or even if you live in the area. Many of the Baltimore, Maryland events are related to history. If you are planning on visiting this area of the United States, you will want to take in one or more of the Baltimore, Maryland events. Some of these events include George Washington Days, Independence Day Celebrations, The Baltimore Art Festival, The Baltimore Jazz Festival and the Taste of Baltimore.

George Washington Days

This is a weeklong celebration of George Washington, the first president of the United States and hero of the Revolutionary War. George Washington Days take place during the last weekend in January through the first weekend in February every year. They include re-enactments of George Washington giving speeches and Revolutionary War battles. There are many people who dress up like colonists who participate in this fun and historical event. Anyone who wants to get a taste of what it was like during Revolutionary War days can visit this event.

Independence Day Celebrations

There are various Independence Day celebrations that take place throughout the city of Baltimore on July 4th. You can watch fireworks from the town square and celebrate the birthday of American freedom. Independence Day celebrations are rife throughout this area and the weather is usually very warm during this time of the year.

Baltimore Art Festival

During the first weekend in August, the Baltimore Art Festival is in full swing. If you want to see some art from new artists who may as of yet be undiscovered talent, or if you want to take a look at some art on display by well known artists, you can visit the Baltimore Art Museum to view the finest art in Baltimore.

Taste of Baltimore

Every August, the city of Baltimore puts on the Taste of Baltimore as a way to introduce the various foods from restaurants in the city to the public. You can purchase tickets to this event and sample different foods from a variety of different restaurants. If you want to get a real taste of the city of Baltimore, you will not want to miss this tasteful Baltimore, Maryland event.

Baltimore Jazz Festival

The Baltimore Jazz Festival takes place in the Baltimore Concert Hall every September, although the date for this varies throughout the month. This is an event that showcases the jazz music of the area and also includes food and drink. You have to purchase tickets to enjoy the Baltimore Jazz Festival, but any music lover will enjoy this annual Baltimore tradition. You can check with the Baltimore Chamber Of Commerce to find out when the Jazz Festival will take place this year in Baltimore.

When you visit the city of Baltimore, there is quite a bit to see and do. This is especially true in the summer months when it is warm and there are art fairs, book fairs and flea markets that take place throughout the city every weekend. If you enjoy history and music as well as good food, you will want to participate in one of the aforementioned Baltimore, Maryland events.

By: Joe Deacon

About the Author:

Joe Deacon loves to travel and
Baltimore, Maryland Events are some of his favorite must-see happenings. Go to and see a
schedule of Baltimore, Maryland Events running at the time of your visit.

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